Acomys cahirinus - an overview (2023)

For those using Acomys cahirinus, the adults are about twice the size of laboratory mice of the C57BL/6J strain (MusB6), the litters are smaller (~2–4 pups/litter), gestation times longer (~40–45 days) and the newborn pups are covered with hair, eyes open, ears unfurled, and are precocious compared to Mus (Haughton, Gawriluk, & Seifert, 2016;

From: Current Topics in Developmental Biology, 2022

Related terms:

  • Experimental Mouse
  • Elephant Shrew
  • Heterocephalus
  • Mouse
  • Acomys
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Mouse Models of Development and Disease

Daryl M. Okamura, ... Mark W. Majesky, in Current Topics in Developmental Biology, 2022

9 Summary

Scarless wound healing with regeneration of organ function is a long-sought goal of regenerative medicine. The work reviewed above suggest that the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) is an emerging model organism with potential to identify mechanisms of tissue and organ regenerative repair that operate in the context of mammalian physiology directed by a mammalian genome. Although these animals have distinct husbandry needs compared to laboratory mice (Haughton et al., 2016), and their evolutionary distance from Mus presents a computational challenge for comparative transcriptomics, the remarkable wound healing properties that have evolved in the genus Acomys promise unique insights into potential applications for mammalian tissue regeneration.

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Mammalian Placentation: Implications for Animal Models

A.M. Carter, A.M. Mess, in Pathobiology of Human Disease, 2014

Are There Realistic Alternatives?

The spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus), from Northeast Africa, is a murine rodent with a small litter size and a relatively long gestation. Most organ development occurs in utero, resulting in precocial neonates. Unlike mouse and rat, therefore, this is a model that might be appropriate for studying the events of late human pregnancy. Acomys is in the same family as mouse and rat (Muridae) although a different subfamily. Because of this close relationship, it is rather easy to develop probes using primers based on the nucleotide sequences of mouse and rat genes. Moreover, Acomys is likely to become more widely available in laboratories because of its potential for studies of tissue regeneration.

Historically, the rabbit was an important model in reproductive endocrinology. The countercurrent exchange mechanism of the labyrinthine placenta was first explored in this species by Mossman. We support a recent suggestion that the rabbit should be reintroduced as a model for human reproduction including placentation.

Tree shrews and colugos are even closer to primates than rodents and lagomorphs (Figure 1). Tree shrews can be bred in captivity and Tupaia has been used in the pharmaceutical industry for research in female reproduction. They have endotheliochorial placentas but deserve consideration as potential models for human placentation because of their phylogenetic position within Euarchonta and proven methods of animal husbandry.

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(Video) Acomys cahirinus climbing on Ochradenus baccatus bushe

Vision I

G.E. Pickard, P.J. Sollars, in The Senses: A Comprehensive Reference, 2008 Entrainment Confers Clock-Like Properties to the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

The SCN circadian oscillator derives functional utility from its ability to be entrained to the 24h environmental day/night cycle via input from the retina irrespective of whether a nonparametric or parametric mechanism is used. Entrainment provides a predictable and appropriate phase relationship to the day/night cycle, in effect enabling recognition of local time. The SCN circadian oscillator is thus said to function as a biological clock (Pittendrigh, C. S. and Daan, S., 1976b). Entrainment differs from simple synchronization to changes in the light/dark cycle. Entrainment is neither passive nor driven and therefore allows for great plasticity and adaptive potential. This plasticity is evidenced, for example, by the change in the phase angle of entrainment in the golden hamster that occurs with seasonal changes in day length (Elliott, J. A., 1976). Seasonal inversions of activity patterns have been described in normally nocturnal bats that become diurnal in the winter due to the availability of insects (Daan, S., 1981). Another example of plasticity in entrainment is the temporal partitioning that exists between two species of spiny mouse (Acomys). When coexisting in nature, the common spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) is nocturnal, whereas the golden spiny mouse (Acomys russatus) is diurnal. When the common spiny mouse is removed from the shared habitat, the golden spiny mouse becomes nocturnal; chemical signals released by A. cahirinus may alter the entrainment of A. russatus to the day/night cycle (Haim, A. and Rozenfeld, F. M., 1993; Shargal, E. et al., 2000).

The establishment of an appropriate phase relationship between the environment and the circadian system allows the SCN to generate a temporal program whereby biological functions occur at specific times within the day/night cycle (Hastings, M. H. et al., 2003). Alterations in SCN circadian function resulting from changes in the response of the SCN to RHT input or changes in SCN gene activity can result in altered phase relationships of daily oscillations in physiology, metabolism, or behavior with the day/night cycle. Such alterations in circadian function and the accompanying changes in phase have been associated with human disorders. Individuals suffering from annual recurring depression or seasonal affective disorder (SAD) typically have phase-delayed circadian rhythms (Lewy, A. J. et al., 1987); appropriately timed treatment with light can correct the alteration in phase and alleviate the depressive symptoms (Terman, M. and Terman, J. S., 2005). Individuals with advanced sleep phase syndrome (ASPS) regularly fall asleep in the early evening, whereas people with delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) typically cannot fall asleep until early morning. These individuals may have an abnormality in one of the Per genes, resulting in an altered circadian period and hence an altered phase angle of entrainment of the sleep–wake cycle (Jones, C. R. et al., 1999; Ebisawa, T. et al., 2001; Toh, K. L. et al., 2001; Archer, S. N. et al., 2003).

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(Video) Common spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) spitting seeds - ex situ

The Neurobiology of Circadian Timing

Alexandra Castillo-Ruiz, ... William J. Schwartz, in Progress in Brain Research, 2012


Competition in the face of limited resources can be mitigated by the separation of species in space and by diet but also in time (Schoener, 1986). For example, a redistribution of nighttime activity patterns has been demonstrated in Gerbillus allenbyi and G. pyramidum, two species of sand dune gerbils, studied separately or together in 100m2 seminatural grids. When separated, both species show nocturnal activity mostly confined to the first part of the night; but when together, the activity of the subordinate species, G. allenbyi, is displaced to the second half of the night (Ziv et al., 1993). Temporal partitioning also occurs between the cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) and prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) studied in 4m2 arenas, with voles becoming most active at phases when rats are least active. Spatial partitioning arises additionally only in the presence of reproductive rats, which show higher levels of interspecific aggression than nonreproductive rats (Glass and Slade, 1980).

Even more dramatic are reports of interspecific interactions that lead to an inversion of daily activity patterns. Two species of closely related spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus and A. russatus) cohabit the same rocky terrain of the Dead Sea Valley, with overlap in microhabitat use, home ranges, food habits, and reproductive period (for review, see Kronfeld-Schor and Dayan, 2008). Notably, A. cahirinus is nocturnal and A. russatusis diurnal. Shkolnik (1971) attributed this pattern to interspecific competition; upon removal of A. cahirinus from the field site, A. rusattus expands its activity profile to the night, suggesting that the presence of A. cahirinus prevents A. russatus from being active at its preferred phase of the daily cycle. When A. cahirinus is released back into the field site, both species reestablish their temporal segregation. The nature of the limiting resource(s) is unknown. More recently, laboratory studies of Acomys have been informative and are reviewed in a later section of this review.

A second example relates to the American mink (Neovison vison), which was introduced to Great Britain in the early 1900s and became established in the absence of its natural competitors, the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) and the European polecat (Mustela putoris). Under these conditions, Harrington et al. (2009) observed in the 1990s that the mink was predominantly active during the night. Ten years later, however, after the native competitor populations had recovered, the mink appeared to have switched to a day-active pattern.

To our knowledge, only one laboratory study has explored whether time-dependent exposure to an interspecific competitor can induce acute phase shifts of activity rhythms. Scheibler and Wollnik (2009) introduced a Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) housed in a small cage into the home cage of a desert hamster (Phodopus roborovskii) for 2h at eight time points spanning the 24-h circadian cycle in constant darkness; in this pairing, gerbils are believed to be dominant and hamsters subordinate. The authors reported that hamsters exhibited phase advances of their circadian wheel-running rhythm during the subjective day and mid-subjective night. Shortening of hamster free-running period with increased wheel running was also observed after gerbils were introduced during the subjective day, perhaps related to increased arousal.

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(Video) My spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus) taught themselves a trick!

Classics revisited: C. J. van der Horst on pregnancy and menstruation in elephant shrews

A.M. Carter, in Placenta, 2018

1 Introduction

Human reproduction has many unique features [1]. One is menstruation, the shedding of decidua at the end of an infertile cycle with accompanying loss of blood. Decidualization involves a change in the size, shape and properties of the connective tissue cells of the endometrium (stromal fibroblasts) in preparation for embryo implantation [2]. In most mammals, decidualization does not occur until there is an embryonic signal. But in humans decidualization is triggered by a maternal signal in the second half of the menstrual cycle. The decidua will be useful if there is a pregnancy, but otherwise is shed.

Menstruation is known to occur in haplorrhine primates (Old World monkeys and apes) and some Neotropical primates. It has also been documented in phyllostomid and molossid bats [3] and the Cairo spiny mouse (Acomys cahirhinus) [4]. However, the best-known example of menstruation in non-primates concerns a distantly related order, the elephant shrews or sengis (Macroscelidea). In the 1940's, when human menstruation was poorly understood, Professor C. J. van der Horst of the University of the Witwatersrand proposed using elephant shrews as a model. To this end, he published an impressive body of research. In the meantime, a breeding colony of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) had been established at the Carnegie Institution of Washington [5]. It was used to give a detailed description of the changes in the endometrium during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy and to explore the physiological basis for these events in primates [6,7]. This was considered a better model for human reproduction and work on menstruation in elephant shrews was not pursued after van der Horst's death.

In addition to describing reproduction in the Eastern rock elephant shrew (Elephantulus myurus), van der Horst made significant observations on the early development and placentation of South African mammals. His work was extended by scientists working on his extensive collection. These contributions are reviewed below and his work on elephant shrews discussed in the light of renewed interest in the decidualization process and its role in the evolution of placentation in eutherian mammals [8–10].

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(Video) Regeneration Bonus: Ashley Seifert


What is the name of the mouse with spikes? ›

African spiny mouse, (genus Acomys), any of more than a dozen species of small to medium-sized rodents characterized by the harsh, inflexible spiny hairs of their upperparts.

What does the spiny mouse eat? ›

Cairo spiny mice live in burrows or rock crevices and are mostly terrestrial, but they can also clamber about in low bushes. They are nocturnal and omnivorous, eating anything edible they can find. Their diet includes seeds, nuts, fruit, green leaves, insects, spiders, molluscs, and carrion.

Can spiny mice live with fancy mice? ›

Spiny mice are very social rodents, you must house them in small groups if and when possible. Sometimes, you can cohabit spiny mice with other species of mice, but do so with caution. We would still recommend keeping them with other spiny mice as well.

What is the lifespan of a spiny mouse? ›

AnAge entry for Acomys cahirinus

In captivity, average longevity is about 3 years. Older mothers have larger litters [0434]. One captive specimen lived at least 5.9 years [0671].

What kind of mouse is furry? ›

Deer mice are named for their fur's striking similarity to the coloration of deer fur. Their grayish-brown bodies gradually whiten at the belly and legs. The most telling characteristic is their bicolored tail which is dark and bottom is light.

Is there an alpha mouse? ›

Groups of mice live in hierarchies, both in the lab and the wild. In the lab, though, the highest ranking males form particularly despotic regimes. One or more dominant “alpha mice” will have privileged access to food and females.

Can a spiny mouse regrow its tail? ›

Like salamanders, newts and other amphibians, the African spiny mouse can regrow toetips, seal holes in its ears, and regenerate missing skin, bone muscles and nerves without any trace of scar tissue, making it a stand-out example among mammals.

Are spiny mice good pets? ›

Spiny mice are not born hand-tame, they must be handled on a regular basis, especially at young age. However, spiny mice aren't aggressive by nature and with a little effort they make wonderfully tame and calm pets.

What is the diet of the Acomys? ›

Acomys species are omnivorous and are known to ingest insects, snails, and seeds and other plant material. Captive colonies have been maintained on a variety of foodstuffs, and there is likely no preferred diet.

Do spiny mice smell? ›

Spiny mice are relatively new pet rodents, but they have already gained some popularity due to their funny looks, nice temperament and the fact that they do not smell.

Can you put two wild mice together? ›

Mice are highly sociable animals, so you should keep at least two mice together. Avoid housing undesexed males together as they tend to fight, and also avoid housing undesexed males and females together to avoid having any unintended litters of baby mice.

Why are my fancy mice fighting? ›

They like to chase each other around the cage for fun. This behavior is normal in young mice just like kids. Some mice might fight and end up chasing each other, this is their way of showing who's the boss. There is a way to differentiate if the mice are either fighting or just playing around.

How old is the oldest mice? ›

A mouse named Patrick Stewart (in tribute to the iconic actor), has been verified as the oldest living mouse in human care as well as the oldest mouse ever, aged 9 years 210 days as of 9 February 2023. Pat's age is unprecedented for a mouse.

How old is the oldest mouse? ›

Even when being cared for by humans, they don't usually live much longer than 7.5 years. Last Wednesday, Pat earned a Guinness World Record as the world's oldest known mouse. He was nine years and 209 days old…and counting.

Are spiny mice endangered? ›

What is the cutest mice? ›

1. Wood mouse. Wood mice have long tails, rounded ears, and small furry bodies. Wood mice are a cute species living in forests, fields, and grasslands of Europe and southwestern Africa.

What are the rarest mice? ›

The golden mouse (Ochrotomys nuttalli) is considered a "rare" small mammal species despite its relatively wide geographical distribution within the southeastern United States.

What is the rarest mouse in the world? ›

The Roraima mouse is not only one of the rarest, but also one of the most restricted mammals in terms of geographical distribution: it was previously known from only six animals collected in 1927 and 1989, all from the summit of the same tepui, Mount Roraima, on the border of Guyana, Venezuela and Brazil.

What is a Z mouse? ›

Compatible with PC & Mac. It's Time To Change The Game The Z is Swiftpoint's highly advanced premium gaming and productivity mouse, designed to help you play better and win more. Awesome Driver Software - Powerful, customizable, yet intuitive & easy-to-use.

Do mice get angry? ›

New evidence shows mice have a brain structure that throttles rage. The structure is called the lateral septum. It's physically connected to and receives electrical signals other parts of the brain that control emotions, learning, aggression, and hormone production.

Is there an immortal mouse? ›

A single mouse has yielded 581 copies of itself after Japanese researchers figured out how to improve on the technique used to creat Dolly, the monstrous and unholy sheep-thing that heralded the dawn of cloning tech back in 1996.

Is it OK to pick a mouse up by its tail? ›

Picking up mice by the tail can compromise their welfare and affect scientific outcomes. Research has shown that picking up mice by the tail induces aversion and high anxiety levels, as assessed by a range of measures, which can be minimised by instead using a tunnel or a cupped hand.

Why do mice tap their tails? ›

Tail rattling is a territorial behavior that occurs in response to a threat. In the wild this is one of the most commonly observed territorial behaviors, however, like most territorial behaviors it is rarely observed in standard laboratory housing conditions.

Can a rat live without its tail? ›

Rats Can Live Without Their Tails

Speaking of tails, rats actually do not need them to survive and cannot regenerate a new one if they lose the tail. This is interesting, considering the tail is part of their vertebral column and is therefore a crucial part of their physical make-up.

What is the sweetest rodent pet? ›

Guinea pigs are considered the sweetest and most social of the pet rodents.

Do pet mice like to cuddle? ›

Mice like to be snuggled and pet just like any other animal (although, probably a little more gently). They enjoy riding on your shoulder or sitting in your hand to snack on some veggies.

Are mice OK to touch? ›

Mice do not generally bite (unless handled), so that is not the risk. The biggest problem that turns them from a nuisance to a danger are the health risks they bring with them from diseases and parasites. Mice can contaminate food and food surfaces.

What is Wim Hof's diet? ›

Wim Hof follows a plant-based diet because he does not consume any animal proteins, including beef, pork, poultry, seafood, and fish, nor does he consume animal products such as dairy and eggs. He reportedly became a vegetarian around the age of 20 after being raised on an omnivorous diet.

Do mice know human scent? ›

Mice have an incredible sense of smell, and this helps them significantly when it comes to avoiding traps. See, mice don't actually know that there are traps to be avoided that could kill them, but they are able to smell human, and they tend to shy away from that smell.

What smell do mice not like? ›

But what exactly do mice and rats hate to smell? Mice can be kept away by using the smells of peppermint oil, cinnamon, vinegar, citronella, ammonia, bleach, and mothballs.

Do mice like the smell of soap? ›

Does Irish Spring soap keep mice away? Although a common belief, soap does not keep mice away. Not even Irish Springs soap keeps mice away. This myth comes from the idea that mice eat animal fat (a core ingredient in many soaps), so by eating soap the mice will die from chemical exposure.

Can mice learn their names? ›

Mice and rats are so smart that they can recognize their names and respond when called.

Is corn cob bedding good for mice? ›

Pelletted corncobs have become an increasingly popular choice of rodent bedding. It is one of the hardest beddings and has been shown to contain no dust, reduce the spread of allergens, and produce negligible levels of ammonia within the cage, and thus minimize the number of cage changes.

Does killing mice deter other mice? ›

Dead mice also attract other rodents and pests that can increase your infestation problems.

Why are my mice eating each other? ›

Possible causes for cannibalism in laboratory mice are multiple. A foreign smell on the pups can confuse the female, leading to neglect or abandonment and later cannibalization. Try to avoid touching newborns.

Why do mice hiss? ›

Squeaking and chirping - Used during grooming or to get the attention of other rodents, these sounds signal socialization. Shrieking, hissing, and chattering - Residents usually hear these aggressive, hostile rodent noises when the pests fight in the attic or walls.

What is the oldest animal in the world? ›

Ming the Clam

What is the world's largest mouse? ›

Petter's big-footed mouse (Macrotarsomys petteri), is a Madagascan rodent in the genus Macrotarsomys. With a head and body length of 150 mm (5.9 in) and body mass of 105 g (3.7 oz), it is the largest species of its genus.

What is the longest living animal? ›

Ocean Quahogs (Clams)

Ocean quahogs live in the Atlantic and can live more than 400 years old. At 507 years of age, Ming the clam broke the Guinness World Record as the oldest animal in the world.

What is the oldest cow? ›

The oldest age recorded for a cow was 48 years and 9 months for Big Bertha (1944–93), a Dremon owned by Jerome O'Leary of Blackwatersbridge, Co. Kerry, Republic of Ireland.

How old is Yoda the mouse? ›

His name was Yoda and he was a genetically altered dwarf mouse who lived to be 4 years old, around double the age of normal mice; in people years he would have been about 135 years old.

Can a mouse last 10 years? ›

While many factors can affect their longevity, mice usually live for about 12 to 18 months.

Do field mice freeze? ›

A deep enough burrow may provide enough warmth and cover to allow the field mouse to survive freezing temperatures.

Do frozen mice carry diseases? ›

Live and frozen feeder rodents (such as mice and rats) and the reptiles and amphibians that eat them (snakes, lizards, turtles, and frogs) can sometimes carry germs that can make people sick. These germs can cause illnesses ranging from diarrhea to birth defects.

Will mice ever leave? ›

If a mouse or several mice have found their way inside, they will come and go freely, but it is unlikely that they will ever move their nests back outside, even in springtime when the weather warms up. If mice are cozy in their nests and have plenty of food and water in your home, they will not want to leave.

What is the little mouse that jumps? ›

Meadow Jumping Mouse, Zapus hudsonius

The Meadow Jumping Mouse, which can be found state-wide, is well suited for making long leaps to escape danger with its long hind feet and very long tail.

What mouse has a really pointy nose? ›

The diminutive common shrew has a distinctively pointy nose and tiny eyes. It lives life in the fast lane, eating every 2-3 hours to survive, and only living for a year or so. Look out for it in the garden.

What is a mouse like animal with thorns? ›

The porcupine is the prickliest of rodents, though its Latin name means “quill pig.” There are more than two dozen porcupine species, and all boast a coat of needle-like quills to give predators a sharp reminder that this animal is no easy meal.

What looks like a mouse but jumps? ›

jumping mouse, (subfamily Zapodinae), any of five species of small leaping rodents found in North America and China. Jumping mice weigh from 13 to 26 grams (0.5 to 0.9 ounce) and are 8 to 11 cm (3.1 to 4.3 inches) long, not including the scantily haired tail, which is longer than the body.

What is the mouse monster called? ›

The Mouse and the Monster is a 1996–97 American animated series created by Jerry Leibowitz for Saban Entertainment. It centered around a mouse named Chesbro, and a beatnik monster named Mo.

What is the mouse that screams? ›

Grasshopper Mouse | Listen: The grasshopper mouse howls at night—like a wolf.

What is a werewolf mouse? ›

Grasshopper mice not only hunt, they howl as they do! Standing on their hind legs, the mice throw back their heads, close their eyes, and “sing” or “howl” to others in the neighborhood. The piercing howl has earned the grasshopper mouse its alternate name: “Werewolf mouse.”

What is a scorpion mouse? ›

The southern grasshopper mouse or scorpion mouse (Onychomys torridus) is a species of predatory rodent in the family Cricetidae, native to Mexico and the states of Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah in the United States.

What is the scariest rodent? ›

1Cape Porcupines

Only the capybara and beaver outweigh these monsters. Cape porcupines have over 30,000 individual quills. These 8-centimeter (3 in), razor-sharp hairs detach easily and regrow, providing the most terrifying line of defense in the rodent family.

What to do if you find a dead mouse in your house? ›

Call In an Exterminator to See How Bad the Problem Is

If you found a single dead mouse, chances are, you likely have more somewhere in or around your home. What you need to do is call in a professional exterminator who can take the time to go through your whole home looking for signs of an infestation.

Do foxes chase mice? ›

Urban foxes help control small mammals, particularly rodents including rats, mice and voles.

What does the word mice mean in the Bible? ›

The name of this animal occurs in ( Leviticus 11:29 ; 1 Samuel 6:4 1 Samuel 6:5 ; Isaiah 66:17 ) The Hebrew word is in all probability generic, and is not intended to denote any particular species of mouse. The original word denotes a field-ravager, and may therefore comprehend any destructive rodent.

What is a dancing mouse? ›

a strain of mice displaying behavior that resembles dancing. Mice of this strain have a genetic defect that causes degeneration of the hair cells of the inner ear. This degeneration produces deafness and impaired functioning of the vestibular system of the ear, which is thought to cause the dancelike behavior.

How do you get rid of jumping mice? ›

How to Get Rid of Mice in Your Home
  1. Remove all food sources. Mice only need small amounts of food each day. ...
  2. Get rid of nesting materials. ...
  3. Seal entry points. ...
  4. Use natural mouse repellent. ...
  5. Get a cat. ...
  6. Try live traps. ...
  7. Use essential oils. ...
  8. Trapping.
Apr 11, 2023

What is a jumping rat? ›

Malagasy giant jumping rats are the largest rodent native to Madagascar; they are found nowhere else on Earth. This is the only living species of its genus. They can jump nearly 40 inches into the air when threatened.


1. Thermoregulation in Acomys cahirinus
(Henry Cornwell)
2. Mammals of the World: Cairo Spiny Mouse (Acomys cahirinis)
(Obnoxious Animal Expert)
3. Zoo Guest: Egyptian Spiny Mouse
4. Golden Spiny Mouse (Acomys russatus) / Gold-Stachelmaus 1/5
(Michael Billerbeck - Birds & Nature)
5. Crazy shinanagans with my Egyptian spiny mice!
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6. taming my Egyptian spiny mice: update
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